T vaginalis is a unicellular parasitic flagellate. It causes trichomoniasis known as a wide spread sexually transmitted infection. Trichomonas parasitizes only in the human body, which is considered the only natural habitat of this microorganism. There is evidence that this bacteria can survive outside the human body only for a very limited period of time.
Geographical distribution: ubiquitous.
Localization: vagina and urethra in women, urethra, bladder, prostate gland in men.
Morphology: pear-shaped, length 7-45 μm, 4 flagella, undulating membrane. In the cytoplasm, one core, axostyle, digestive vacuoles. There is no cyst.
Life cycle: invasive stage – vegetative forms. Infection occurs through:
- sexual contact;
- personal hygiene items (washcloths, towels);
- non-sterile medical instruments (gynecological, urological), gloves.
It causes inflammation of the vagina or urethra (itching, serous-purulent secretion). Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. In 1036% of people asymptomatic carriage of Trichomonas is observed.
Diagnosis: examination of a smear from the urethra or vagina.
Prevention: personal – use condoms, avoid random sexual intercourse; public – to identify and treat patients and carriers; use sterile gynecological, urological instruments, gloves; disinfect bathtubs in healthcare insitutions; health education.